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ww2 north atlantic convoy routes

A total of 452,393 tons passed through the Bering Strait aboard 120 ships. As the Allies closed the air gap over the North Atlantic with very long range aircraft, Huff-Duff (radio triangulation equipment) improved, airborne centimetric radar was introduced and convoys received escort carrier protection, the scope for commerce raiding diminished.

Photo: Convoy Schedules Section (FXC-3722), April 1945. Other Kriegsmarine capital ships either never got to Norway (e.g. List of Allied convoys during World War II by region. Convoy Routing Codes More Routing Codes - A section of Uboat.net's site. Dockyard notebook of Lord Charles Beresford. [citation needed], The Arctic route was the shortest and most direct route for lend-lease aid to the USSR, though it was also the most dangerous. Supplies were often destroyed by the Nazi air-bombings, and by Naval Detachment K while on the way to Leningrad. First Sea Lord (Laurence Naismith), “We are eager to tunnel under the Atlantic and bring the Old World some weeks nearer to the New; but perchance the first news that will leak through into the broad, flapping American ear will be that the Princess Adelaide has the whooping cough.”—Henry David Thoreau (1817–1862), sailed from Bermuda and merged with same number HX convoy at sea, Charleston, South Carolina to British Isles, Caribbean (later New York City) to Liverpool, 14-knot convoys of tankers with some fast cargo ships, replaced by MKS convoys after Operation Torch, Halifax Harbour (later New York City) to Liverpool, 9-knot convoys for ships of sustained speeds less than 15 knots, slower ships to the Mediterranean - 1st 12 sailed independently - remainder sailed with OS convoys and detached west of Gibraltar, Mediterranean to Firth of Clyde or Liverpool, slower ships from the Mediterranean- 1st 11 sailed independently - remainder merged with SL convoys west of Gibraltar, early sailings every 5th merged OA/OB convoy became an OG convoy at sea - later OG convoys sailed from Liverpool, replaced OB convoys for North American destinations - alternate convoys included slower ships until the ONS convoys started, slower ships westbound on the ON convoy route, replaced OB convoys for non-North American destinations - included KMS convoys detached west of Gibraltar, Sydney, Nova Scotia (or Halifax Harbour or New York City) to Liverpool, 7-knot convoys of eastbound ships too slow for the 9-knot HX convoys, merged with MKS convoys west of Gibraltar, 14-knot CU convoys of tankers and fast cargo ships with troopships, Liverpool to Caribbean (later New York City), 14-knot UC convoys of tankers and fast cargo ships with some troopships, faster ships - (UGF-1) was the invasion force for Operation Torch.

Photo: Convoy Time Graph--Schedule of Trade Convoys 5March-15Apr43. Convoy routes. (GBK/7), Notebook and Admiralty instructions belonging to Charles Minter. [16] Nevertheless, 8,244,000 tons of goods went by this route, 50 percent of the total.[15]. Prinz Eugen was badly damaged by a torpedo and the Admiralty was informed of the hit by an Enigma intercept the next day. Particular dangers included: Cargo included tanks, fighter planes, fuel, ammunition, raw materials, and food. [11], It has been said that the main value of the convoys was political, proving that the Allies were committed to helping the Soviet Union at a time when they were unable to open a second front. [14], The 1955 novel HMS Ulysses by Scottish writer Alistair MacLean, considered a classic of naval warfare literature and the 1967 novel The Captain by Dutch author Jan de Hartog are set during the Arctic convoys. 7 ships sunk with a total of 24,601 tons. These WWII convoys received a number when they left the harbour, eg. HX- Homeward from Halifax (North Atlantic) From September 1942 to March 1943 assembly port was in New York, then Sydney again. Some 3,964,000 tons of goods were shipped by the Arctic route; 7 percent was lost, while 93 percent arrived safely. Convoy Routes - WW I and WW II. After December 1941, only Soviet ships could be used and as Japan and the USSR observed a strict neutrality towards each other, only non-military goods could be transported. (GBK/6), Account and notebook compiled by Harry Edwin, probably an accounts officer onboard HMS VALIANT, HM ships NELSON, TAMAR and UNDINE. As a "fleet in being", Tirpitz and the other German capital ships tied down British resources which might have been better used elsewhere, for example combating the Japanese in the Indian Ocean. Towards the end of the war the material significance of the supplies was probably not as great as the symbolic value hence the continuation—at Stalin's insistence—of these convoys long after the Soviets had turned the German land offensive. Supplies were often destroyed by the Nazi air-bombings, and by Naval Detachment K while on the way to Leningrad. For an alphabetical listing of convoy codes, see, North American Coastal and Caribbean Convoys, Mediterranean and North African Coastal Convoys, List of Allied convoy codes during World War II, Treaty on the Final Settlement with Respect to Germany, Rape during the Soviet occupation of Poland, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_Allied_convoys_during_World_War_II_by_region&oldid=953062409, North American Coastal convoys of World War II, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, outward and return convoys used same number, temporarily replaced by EC convoys during 1941, merged with OB convoy in the southwest approaches, merged with OA convoy in the southwest approaches - ON and OS convoys replaced OB convoys, sailed from Bermuda and merged with same number HX convoy at sea, 9-knot convoys for ships of sustained speeds less than 15 knots, slower ships to the Mediterranean - 1st 12 sailed independently - remainder sailed with OS convoys and detached west of Gibraltar, slower ships from the Mediterranean- 1st 11 sailed independently - remainder merged with SL convoys west of Gibraltar, early sailings every 5th merged OA/OB convoy became an OG convoy at sea - later OG convoys sailed from Liverpool, replaced OB convoys for North American destinations - alternate convoys included slower ships until the ONS convoys started, slower ships westbound on the ON convoy route, replaced OB convoys for non-North American destinations - included KMS convoys detached west of Gibraltar, 7-knot convoys of eastbound ships too slow for the 9-knot HX convoys, merged with MKS convoys west of Gibraltar, faster ships - (UGF-1) was the invasion force for, French convoys - sometimes prefixed F or S, southward extension of the corresponding OS convoy, July 1942 from Beira - September 1943 from Mumbai, {return Addu Atoll to Colombo convoys used same CX designation}, troopships; WS convoys on at least one occasion [WS30, 1943] routed via Freetown and Durban, This page was last edited on 25 April 2020, at 14:34.

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