kastner trial

(Article 37 of the Courts Law [consolidated version], 5744–1984.) Agranat sought to correct this error by introducing a legal doctrine that could be adjusted to these different conditions, one that would be able to consider the need to “gamble” in human lives, to take risks and to use trickery. 145–71.

The judge’s moral condemnation consists, in part, of exposing the inadequacy of Kastner’s language, a language that protects the speaker from acknowledging the full meaning of his actions. Before the highest court returned this verdict, however, Kasztner was assassinated near his home in Tel Aviv on the night of March 4, 1957, by three veterans of the right-wing pre-state militia group Lehi, once a splinter group of the Irgun. Friedlander, Saul, Reflections of Nazism: An Essay on Kitsch and Death (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1993), 95. Can we infer the existence of free choice under extreme circumstances of inequality? For an interesting discussion of the relations between law and literature in this respect, see Gretchen A. Alterman, Kastner's Notebooks (private notes, not published) (on file in Alterman's Archives, Tel Aviv University). Published online by Cambridge University Press: URL: /core/journals/law-and-history-review. 44 The judge affirmatively quoted Moshe Kraus, the head of the “Israeli office” in Budapest, who described Kastner’s immoral character to explain why he did not warn the people about the impeding catastrophe: “When it concerns his own interests .

Tamir claimed that had the Jews been informed of the Nazi extermination plan, many of them could perhaps have escaped to Romania, revolted against the Germans, or sent calls for help to the outside world, all of which could have significantly slowed down the Nazi killing process. Likewise, Judge Halevi blamed Kastner for ignoring a warning given by Moshe Kraus, the head of the “Israeli office” in Budapest, that the negotiations were a “dangerous Nazi plot.” Attorney General v. Gruenvald, 32. : Harvard University Press, 1988); White, James Boyd, Heracles' Bow (Madison: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1985); Brooks, Peter and Gewirts, Paul, eds., Law's Stories: Narrative and Rhetoric in the Law (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1996). A contract is based on the legal presumption of a meeting of wills between the parties. Appeal, Attorney General v. Gruenvald, 2017, 2076.

Friedlander’s analysis illuminates Halevi’s pervasive reliance on contract law doctrine throughout his judgment.

42, 44, quoted in Attorney General v. Gruenvald, 66. In Halevi’s story the issue of who initiated the deal is ambiguous because, as we have seen, there were several versions of the contract: the “Europe Plan” to exchange the Jews of Europe for two million dollars, initiated by Wisliceny; Kastner’s and Brand’s counteroffer consisting of four obligations to be fulfilled by the Nazis; the contract about the train of six hundred dignitaries designed by Kastner to test the seriousness of the Nazis’ intentions about the “Europe Plan”; and Eichmann’s offer to Brand to exchange a million Jews for 10,000 trucks, which was the basis of Brand’s mission to Istanbul. Note that the contrast between heroism (Senesh) and betrayal (Kastner) acquires here a gendered structure, implying that an Israeli Woman is morally superior to a Diaspora Man.

[49] Even though Halevi acknowledged that Kastner’s original aim was noble–saving Hungarian Jews from death–he stressed other elements that were more questionable. . He did not act any longer as the head of the Rescue Committee of the Jews of Hungary and was dissociated from any Jewish public.

94 Appeal, Attorney General v. Gruenvald, 2064–65 (the choice of the word “reconciling” is even more striking given the fact that Agranat is quoting from an English source that uses the more neutral term “balance”).

They ruled the Western Allies and they controlled Bolshevik Russia … A basic desire to murder all the Jews does not contravene a readiness to use them, or some of them, as hostages to be exchanged for things that Germany needed in its crisis; the negotiations could be held with either the foreign Jews themselves or with their non-Jewish puppets.”.

K. was offered the opportunity to save six hundred souls from the impending Holocaust and a chance to somewhat increase their numbers through payment or further negotiations.

99. Alterman concluded his diary entry by saying, “In the many sections in which he [the judge] treats the underlying personal motivations, the judgment reads like a psychological novel; and it is primarily on the basis of these chapters of psychology, which the judge serves to us on a platter, that the verdict is reached.”[110] A similar criticism of law can be found in a short essay on the trial of Dominici by the literary critic Roland Barthes :[111], Periodically, some trial, and not necessarily fictitious like the one in Camus’s The Outsider, comes to remind you that the Law is always prepared to lend you a spare brain in order to condemn you without remorse, and that, like Corneille, it depicts you as you should be, and not as you are.

. Like so many of us, Arendt's conception of evil had been informed by great works of art, but the reality of this villain did not fit her expectations. For example, when Kastner and his friends approached Eichmann and suggested allowing a limited number of Jews to emigrate, Eichmann reacted by saying that this plan was not big enough to provide a total (in Nazi terms “final”) solution to the Jewish problem. Faust is depicted in the different versions of the story as a loner. .

The Politics of Genocide: The Holocaust in Hungary. The court decided that allegation three had not been proved in the trial. On 04 March 1957 Kastner was murdered by three young Israelis. Woods, John E. (New York: A. First of all, one cannot provide the enemy with trucks … money can be exchanged … but trucks?!

This contract might be condemned for the very willingness to negotiate with the Nazis, but it still fell within the reasonable (though not heroic) realm of legitimate attempts to save Jews. Gruenvald also alleged that Kastner, in collusion with some Nazis, had stolen Jewish money and then helped save the life of Becher with favorable testimony at the Nuremberg war crimes trials. Agranat argued that Kastner understood himself as a leader whose responsibility was to the community as a whole, and not to each individual separately. Appeal, Attorney General v. Gruenveld, 2120: “There will be those who will argue that from a strictly moral point of view, and no matter what the practical considerations are, it was the duty of the head of the Committee to allow the leaders of Kluj to decide for themselves about the significance of the information about Auschwitz and to determine alone the fate of their community members. (“Eichmann is no eagle; rather, a ghost who has a cold on top of that and minute by minute fades in substance, as it were, in his glass box.”). The judge divides his story into three subchapters: “Preparation to the Temptation,” “The Temptation,” and “The Dependence of K. on Eichmann.” Ibid., 49–51.

Halevi deduced Kastner’s intentions from the finding of a contract.

[78] At the same time, the sentence about Faust and the Trojan horse allowed the judge to distinguish between Kastner and the other Jewish leaders. He described Kastner as a leader forced to make difficult decisions under impossible conditions of uncertainty, deceit, and time pressure. This is again reminiscent of the Faustian tradition that depicts the contract with the Devil as a kind of “infection.” See Stem, J. P., History and Allegory in Thomas Mann's Doktor Faustus (London: H. K. Lewis, 1975), 11. How do you intend to get them? [10] These allegations supplied a simple response to the question that haunted the Israeli public at the time: what could account for the “unheroic” deaths of millions of Jews during the Holocaust. Mapai had chosen cooperation with the British in their war efforts against the Nazis, while the Revisionists had believed that the military struggle for liberation from the British in Palestine should continue. 163–71. Having besieged Troy for more than nine years because their admired Helen was a captive there, the Greeks pretended to abandon their quest and left the Trojans a “gift” of a wooden horse; once the horse was taken within the walls of Troy, Greek soldiers poured out of its hollow interior and destroyed the city. For Arendt's physical description of Eichmann, see Eichmann in Jerusalem, 5. Leora Bilsky is a lecturer in Tel Aviv University Law Faculty. He is not married, and his dealings with Satan to further his ambition and interests gradually drive him away from the company of ordinary people.

His murderer was never found. Halevi’s blindness is similar in this respect to Faust’s. Attorney General v. Gruenvald, 206–38.

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