The Thirteenth Amendment permanently abolished slavery in the United States in 1865. Slavery had been theoretically abolished by President Abraham Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation which proclaimed, in 1863, that only slaves located in territories that were in rebellion from the United States were free. Many enslaved women were owned by small farmers and worked as domestic servants.
Headquarters: Many owners and overseers physically beat slaves with instruments such as whips and cat o'nine tails. Slaveowners used a variety of punishments to discipline and dominate slaves. New York, NY 10036, Our Collection: Those bonds, however, did not change the fact that a slave was considered property. The largest numbers of slaves were held in bondage in counties located in either the Tennessee River Valley or the, Alabama gained statehood during a period when. Following the patenting of the cotton gin (in 1793), the War of 1812, and the defeat and expulsion of the Creek Nation in the 1810s, European-American settlement in Alabama was intensified, as was the presence of slavery on newly established plantations in the territory. 49 W. 45th Street The plantation system was solidified throughout the first half of the 19th century, and Alabama was one of the first seven states to withdraw from the Union prior to the American Civil War. On what size farm or plantation did a typical slave live? Statistics: Slaves and Slaveholdings | Slaveholding, 1860 Non-slaveholders 76.1 percent 1-9 slaves 17.2 percent 10-99 6.6 percent over 100 0.1 percent Distribution of Slaves Number of slaves held 0 1-6 7-39 40+ Percent of white families 75 15 9 1 Percent of slaves held 0 16 53 31 Growth of the African American Population 1820 1.77 million 13 percent free 1830 2.33 million 14 Most antebellum slaves lived in so-called nuclear families (father, mother, and children). Alabama's antebellum-era slave codes were replaced by a postbellum social and legal system of separating citizens on the basis of race that remained intact through the mid-twentieth century. ", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Alabama Department of Archives and History, Slavery among Native Americans in the United States, Slave health on plantations in the United States, Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_slavery_in_Alabama&oldid=964230848, Articles needing additional references from January 2017, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 24 June 2020, at 09:04.
Slaves were most often beaten for working too slowly, stealing, running away, and disobeying owners or overseers. 2nd Floor Reading these wills may provide the reader with a clue on their ancestors. How many slave families might have lived on such a plantation? The majority of slaves in Alabama, however, labored on modest farms, and the typical Alabama slaveholder owned fewer than five slaves. The average slave sold for a few hundred dollars, whereas men between the ages of 17 and 35 who could work in the fields often sold for more than a $1,000. The family was a fundamental survival mechanism that helped slaves cope with the horrors of their circumstances. The outcome of the American Civil War ended slavery in Alabama. Originally published in 1861. Ethridge, Robbie Franklyn, and Sheri Marie Shuck-Hall. Baine, Rodney M. 1995. Slaves deeded from George Anderson to son William Anderson – Jun 1831 Slave Narratives from the Federal Writer' Project, 1936-38, By the antebellum period, Alabama had evolved into a slave society, which is characterized by the proliferation and defense of the institution that shaped much of the state's economy, politics, and culture. Slaves often worked alongside and sometimes slept under the same roof as their owner. Compared to their white counterparts, slave families had more mother-headed households and were less patriarchal, and their typical lack of status and property undermined expressions of male authority. 3. Since the U.S. government was not in effective control of many of these territories until later in the war, many of these slaves proclaimed to be free by the Emancipation Proclamation were still held in servitude until those areas came back under Union control. Such incidents were exceptional, however. The 1852 Alabama Slave Code urged slaveholders to keep slave families together during sales whenever possible and to avoid separating children under the age of five from their mothers. It is a precursor to population density maps that have been produced since the 1870 census and especially forshadowed the work published in the Statistical Atlas of the United States by Francis Walker in 1874. Slaves occasionally physically attacked their owners or overseers. Like its neighbors, the Alabama Territory was fertile ground for the surging cotton crop, and soon became one of the major destinations for African-American slaves who were being shipped to the Southeastern United States. 2009. Slavery was officially abolished by the Thirteenth Amendment which took effect on December 18, 1865. How rapidly was the slave population growing?
"Indian Slavery in Colonial Georgia. Wealthy planters generally had multiple domestic servants, whose duties ranged from cooking and cleaning to driving carriages, serving meals, and nursing children. Located on the lower level of the New-York Historical Society, Located on the lower level of the New-York Historical Society, The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History.
View Larger [5.5MB PDF] Distribution of the slave population in the South, based on 1860 census results. Slave families also lacked the institutional and legal rights and protections of white families. Slaves in the Records of the Monroe Session, North Alabama Presbytery – 1823-1827; Autauga County Alabama Slave Owners.
The slave population more than doubled during the 1820s and again during the 1830s. The Alabama Department of Archives and History has federal census enumerations of Alabama for the following years: Population. Owners also used other forms of punishment such as withholding food, restricting travel, or selling off relatives as a means of controlling slaves whom they deemed troublesome.
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