germ cells in vertebrate gonads are produced by

3 (Index, Outline).

The synthesis of Estrogens is under the control of LH and FSH. In the development of large mammalian species germ cells are responsible for production of the sex gametes and thus the next generation of that species. Removing genital ridges before they started to develop into testes or ovaries results in the development of a female, independent of the carried sex chromosome. In the ovary, the theca cells produce testosterone via steroidogenic enzymes such as P450c17, which is immediately converted into estradiol-17β in the granulosa cells by the action of aromatase (36–39). (Scale bars, 20 μm.). These results were visualised under light and electron microscopes: transplanted ovaries developed normally at first, but from the 11th day after transplantation, groups of Sertoli cells, pregranulosa cells and transitional cells (with intermediate characteristics between Sertoli and pregranulosa) were observed.

This is followed by the appearance of cells that produce male steroid hormones within the interstitial regions of the gonad (16–18). Spermatogonia are immature germ cells. (doi:10.1101/gad.200901), Maatouk DM, Mork L, Hinson A, Kobayashi A, McMahon AP & Capel B 2012 Germ cells are not required to establish the female pathway in mouse fetal gonads. Image credit: Norbert Kirchgessner (ETH Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland). 7). Consequently cytoplasmic bridges assure connection between the clones of differentiating daughter cells to form a syncytium. Several lines of evidence have emerged that suggest that germ cells play a role in promoting differentiation of ovarian somatic cells and establishing or maintaining their function. Similar studies in four species of anurans showed histologically that germ cells are not necessary for the initial formation of genital ridges, but they are crucial for development of the ovaries and appear to be a key for the maintenance of gonadal structure (Piprek et al. To further elucidate the roles of germ cells in the sex differentiation of gonads, we have used the medaka, a teleost fish, to generate mutants that lack germ cells from the onset of gonadogenesis by the morpholino-mediated knockdown of cxcr4. EMBO Journal 22 246–251. The sex of a mammalian individual is determined by the Sry gene on the Y chromosome. 1990, Lawson & Hage 1994).

Development 141 3561–3571. The germ cells in the female medaka gonads then begin to dramatically increase in number (25–27), which is not observed in the male gonads (25, 28–31).

Gilboa & Lehmann (2006) demonstrated that proliferation of PGCs and the survival of intermingled cells (ICs: somatic cells in direct contact with germ cells) are connected by a feedback-loop mechanism, where epidermal growth factor receptor signalling plays a central role in a feedback loop coordinating IC survival and PGC proliferation. This situation raises the possibility that signalling from germ cells is important in some taxa but either less so or not at all in others, perhaps depending on the type of sex-determining mechanism (for example, genetic or environmental) and degree of sex plasticity (for example, the ability of some fish species to change sex depending on social factors). 1990). Nagamine CM, Capehart J, Carlisle C & Chang D 1998 Ovotestes in B6-XXSxr sex-reversed mice. Another somatic change affected by the presence or absence of germ cells is luteinisation, an essential process of the post-ovulatory follicle. However, this expression also diminishes at 20 dph (Fig. Migration from the hindgut along the gut and across the dorsal mesentery then takes place. If you are on a personal connection, like at home, you can run an anti-virus scan on your device to make sure it is not infected with malware. Progesterone is synthesized and secreted by corpus luteum and placenta. 2006, Bowles & Koopman 2007, MacLean et al.

Progesterone is essentially required for the implantation of fertilized ovum and maintenance of pregnancy. analyzed data; and H.K., D.S., and M.T. We examine recent experimental analyses of gonadal development and maintenance in the absence of germ cells, in both males and females. In contrast to the well-studied signalling from the somatic cells to the germ cells of the foetal gonads, little is known about how germ cells affect development of the soma. Developmental Biology 370 98–109. The supporting cell lineage has the potential to develop as either granulosa cells (in females) or Sertoli cells (in males), depending on the presence and expression of Sry (Koopman et al. Biology of Reproduction 39 183–194. These spermatids differentiate morphologically into sperm by nuclear condensation, ejection of the cytoplasm and formation of the acrosome and flagellum. Gametogenesis, the development of diploid germ cells into either haploid eggs or sperm, (respectively oogenesis and spermatogenesis) is different for each species but the general stages are similar.

In his book The Selfish Gene published in 1976, Richard Dawkins portrays the organism as a temporary vessel or ‘survival machine’ for genes (Dawkins 1976). While these phenomena and the mechanisms underpinning them are beyond the scope of this review, they clearly support the concept of germ cells as the source of signals to which somatic cells of the organism are responsive. 3

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